The issue has been caught by the PCT tests (see
JENKINS-44444). Repro steps are recorded in this [wrong] test: https://github.com/jenkinsci/matrix-project-plugin/pull/49
In 1.653 there was a patch for the build causes structure: https://github.com/jenkinsci/jenkins/pull/2114 (performance optimization). This patch does not contain the data migration logic (readResolve), hence cause history is being lost once Jenkins gets upgraded.
The issue may impact some BuidCause-dependent logic like Promoted Builds or release Pipelines.