I have uppercase letters in my name, but not my login (user) name.
To respond to your questions, Daniel Beck:
1. This is my sandbox Jenkins instance and it uses AD authentication, but I was able to verify that others on my team were able to reproduce this on my sandbox.
2. I've not built yet, so I cannot say about console.
3. I wanted to try things out before attempting to downgrade, but I'll give that a try and report back.
4. AD, AD plugin. Latest and greatest official version
5. My name appears as "Shannon Kerr", but my user login ID is "skerr"
The other person I had try to login to the sandbox Jenkins did not get the NPE the first time they tried to login. They did logout and got the NPE on the second try. His username is all in lowercase, while his actual name is typical First Last.